For job seekers in the U.S., the short answer is almost always no.
Unless you are an actor or in a specific profession that asks for a photo you should not include a headshot on your resume. For the vast majority of professions, the purpose of your resume is to present your skills and career experience. A photo of oneself provides no insights on a candidate’s skills or work experience. In fact, adding a photo to your resume will actually hurt your chances of getting an interview. Many Applicant Tracking Systems are set up to automatically discard resumes that include a photo. Additionally, companies don't want to expose themselves to potential discrimination claims based on the appearance of a candidate. That’s why many Applicant Tracking Systems are set up to reject resumes with a photo before a human ever sees the resume. A recruiter or hiring manager wants to know if you could be a good potential fit to accomplish a job. Your skills, education, and work experience reveal this, not a photo.